Review

Concept of Lean Manufacturing

Ravi Purohit1, Sarika Borikar2

1,2Department of Textiles, Faculty of Fashion Technology, D.K.T.E Society’s, Ichalkaranji-416115, India.

Abstract

As a period is moving assembling enterprises are moving to the spots where work charges are less yet after setup likewise the assembling cost won’t increment with time in light of the fact that there will be climb in labor charges, crude material charge, transport cost additionally deterioration and so forth these all outcomes in higher assembling cost per unit. likewise to maintain in this aggressive market producer can’t expand the selling cost so this outcome in lessening of the edge (Profit ) so as to manage the profit level the main way is chip away at assembling cost diminishment and this can be accomplished by lean assembling. Lean assembling is a system where wastages and non-esteem exercises get lessened by executing lean tools and making process wind up plainly lean so lean assembling is turning into a requirement for assembling businesses. This paper incorporates data about lean assembling, their advantages, execution process, and lean tools.

Keywords: Benefits of lean, Implementation, Risks, Tools, Training, Types of wastages

1. Introduction

As a period is moving assembling enterprises are moving to the spots where work charges are less yet after setup likewise the assembling cost won’t increment with time in light of the fact that there will be climb in labor charges, crude material charge, transport cost additionally deterioration and so forth these all outcomes in higher assembling cost per unit. likewise to maintain in this aggressive market producer can’t expand the selling cost so this outcome in lessening of the edge (Profit ) so as to manage the profit level the main way is chip away at assembling cost diminishment and this can be accomplished by lean assembling. Lean assembling is a system where wastages and non-esteem exercises get lessened by executing lean tools and making process wind up plainly lean so lean assembling is turning into a requirement for assembling businesses. This paper incorporates data about lean assembling, their advantages, execution process, and lean tools.

Selling price = Profit + Costs          (1)

Here we can’t expand selling cost in this aggressive world. Rather than this association should deal with: 

Profit = Selling price –Manufacturing Costs          (2)

Lean attempts to lessen costs. Organizations that execute Lean regularly make critical cost reserve funds so there is immediate change in profitability. 

To end up noticeably phenomenal associations or Lean Enterprises the initial phase in accomplishing that objective is to distinguish and attempt to take out the every one of sort’s squanders. As Toyota and other superb associations have come to understand that clients are pays for esteem included work, however never for squander. In straightforward words Lean assembling chips away at 3 “M” which is identified with squander lessening. 

  1. Muda- Systematic approach for waste elimination
  2. Mura- Waste generated by uneven workload.
  3. Muri- Waste created by overburden.

Lean manufacturing is also about conversion of push system to pull system.


2. The Seven Wastes

2.1. Transporting

Transportation does not enhance the item likewise in expands material development and taking care of which cause harm break down nature of the item. Transportation squander is exceptionally hard to lessen because of the costs of drawing gear and procedures nearer together likewise it is hard to figure out which procedures ought to be beside each other. Material dealing with hardware’s and Mapping item streams can make this less demanding to imagine. 

2.2 Unnecessary Inventory

This waste is consequence of other wastage like over-creation and holding up. Work in advance (WIP) ought to be an ideal stock to work persistently however in the event that it is more than prerequisite then it is an abundance stock. Recognizable proof of issues gets postpone this is the most concerning issue with the overabundance stock. This causes more modify, less efficiency, increment in lead-time. Likewise, Inventory pieces income for association. 

2.3 Unnecessary/Excess Motion

Motion does not boom the value of the item or management. “to transport and encompass esteem is referred to as work. To transport and not encompass esteem is called motion. Movement implies transferring without working, moving and which includes fee”. This waste is identified with ergonomics regarding on foot, twisting, lifting, extending and coming to. Likewise, tedious motion reasons well-being and safety troubles, which within the gift society are polishing off relatively to a more degree an issue for associations. An exam has to be finished to the jobs with exorbitant motion and it have to be re-intended for advancement. 

2.4 Waiting

Conventional clump and-line fabricating contains most extreme holding up time. Poor material stream, too long generation run and ill-advised work adjusting between two operations these are the real reasons that causes holding up sort of waste. Sitting tight for man, material and Machine prompts lesser profitability. Holding up time is specifically corresponding to the lead-time. Connecting forms together and adjusting appropriate work content in 2 consequent diminishes holding up. 

2.5 Overproduction

Overproduction is about assembling excessively or too soon. Indeed, even a few organizations make more generation in some abundance rate so that if any issue comes in the process they can use that overabundance creation yet Overproduction is exceedingly costly to an assembling plant since it really corrupts quality and efficiency.

Without a moment to spare (JIT) is the framework actualized by Toyota assembling to lessen this waste. In JIT item is made similarly as it is required. Furthermore, Overproduction prompts, intemperate lead-time, high stockpiling cost and it makes prepare hard to recognize abandons. 

2.6 Over Processing

The waste over preparing is the reason for additional operation, unseemly systems, taking care of, oversize hardware, stockpiling, dealing with resistances that are tight likewise including additional procedures that are not required by the client et cetera. These all includes cost, time and cash. Minimal effort atomization and doing appropriate for first time is the answer for this waste.

2.7 Defects

Deformities are items or administrations that don’t affirm to the determination or Customer’s desire and which causing Customer disappointment. Deformities in a procedure causes revise or scrap which builds cost to associations. Through worker, association and Continuous Process Improvement both can add to diminish deserts at numerous offices. The two more sorts of extra wastages are:

  1. Energy wastage.
  2. Less utilization of talent. 

3. Steps for Lean Implementation

Steps for lean implementation are illustrated in fig. 1.

Figure 1: Steps for Lean Implementation

Figure 1: Steps for Lean Implementation

4. Lean Training

The way to executing any new thought or idea is preparing. Best down approach is taken after for preparing from upper administration to administrator level so that everybody is in agreement. Everybody ought to comprehend what lean assembling is and why association is actualizing it and the normal advantages from it. 


5. Lean Tools

Following are the lean tools:

  • 5S
  • Kaizen
  • SMED
  • ANDON
  • KANBAN
  • Root-cause analysis
  • Poka-Yoke
  • Visual displays
  • OEE
  • PDCA
  • JIDOKA
  • Bottleneck analysis
  • JIT
  • TPM
  • VSM
  • GEMBA
  • KPIS
  • Continuous flow

5’S’ (Sort, Set all together, sparkle, Standardize and manage) is an essential and most imperative instrument in this rundown and it is said that exclusive appropriate 5 “S” usage is sufficient to take organization to the new level. Different tools are additionally vital yet handle begin with 5 ‘S’. 


6. Practical Benefits of Lean manufacturing

  1. Quality execution, less deformities and revamp (in house and at client).
  2. Machine and Process Breakdowns gets lowered.
  3. Lower levels of Inventory.
  4. Greater levels of Stock Turnover.
  5. Less Space Required.
  6. Higher efficiencies, more yield per man-hour.
  7. Improved conveyance execution.
  8. Faster Development.
  9. Greater Customer Satisfaction.
  10. Improved representative spirit and association.
  11. Improved relations with supplier.
  12. More Profits!
  13. Increase in Business!
  14. Satisfaction of customers

7. Risks of Implementing Lean

Lean is not a fleeting procedure it requires contribution of everybody from upper level administration to administrator. Numerous associations are actualizing lean yet the maintaining part is getting to be noticeably troublesome. Also, the attitude of individuals is opposing executing lean as though they think change in productivity can make their employment pointless. 


Conclusion

Lean is material to any business however Lean is turning into a requirement for an assembling association, as Lean associations can be more profitable and receptive to advertising than other association regarding items conveyance and speedier administrations, and give items and administrations less lavishly than their non-lean partners. Lean is completely concentrating on the client and it increases the value of the item.


References

  1. M. L. George, “Lean Six Sigma: Combining six sigma quality with lean speed”, McGraw Hill Professional, New York, 2002, pp.1-300, ISBN- 9780071501903.
  2. T Earley, Benefits of Lean Manufacturing | Why Implement Lean?, Available:http://leanmanufacturingtools.org/63/benefits-of-lean-manufacturing  (accessed on 1st May 2016).
  3.  L. Wilson, “How to Implement Lean Manufacturing”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010, pp.1-319, ISBN: 978-0-07-162508-1.
  4. J .P. Womak and D. T. Jones, “Lean Thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation”, Simon and Schuster, New York, 2003, pp.1-400, ISBN: 9780743249270.
  5. E. M. Goldratt, J. Cox, “The Goal”, 2nd ed., Gower Publishing, Aldershot, UK, 1993. ISBN: 978-0884271956 Goldratt, Eliyahu M.; Jeff Cox. The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvement. Great Barrington, MA.: North River Press. ISBN 0-88427-061-0.
  6. T. Melton, “The Benefits of Lean Manufacturing-What Lean Thinking has to Offer the Process Industries” Trans IChemE, Part A, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol.83, No.A6, pp. 662–673, June 2005, doi10.1205/cherd.04351.

©2018 by the authors.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Please cite this article as: Ravi Purohit,Sarika Borikar (2018) Concept of Lean Manufacturing. Journal of Textile and Clothing Science. https://www.jtcsonline.com/lean-manufacturing/
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